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Nutrition and bone health in men and women
Project Code: N05046;
1. Welch A, Bingham S, Camus J, Dalzell N, Reeve J, Day N, Khaw KT. Calcaneum broadband ultrasound attenuation relates to vegetarian and omnivorous diets differently in men and women: an observation from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer in Norfolk (EPIC-Norfolk) population study. Osteoporosis International 2005;16: 590-596.
2. Welch A, Bingham S, Ive J, Friesen M, Wareham N, Riboli E, Khaw KT. Dietary fish intake and plasma phospholipids n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid concentrations in men and women in the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer-Norfolk United Kingdom.cohort. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2006;84:1330-9.
3. Welch A, Bingham S, Reeve J, Khaw KT. A more acidic dietary acid base load is associated with reduced heel bone attenuation in women but not men: results from the EPIC-Norfolk cohort study. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 2007;85:1134-41.
University of Cambridge
The following key results were reported:
• There were weak associations between intake of plant foods and related nutrients and bone heel ultrasound measures, however no associations were identified with fracture risk.
• A diet with low acid/base balance estimated using PRAL and NEAP was associated with higher bone heel ultrasound measures but the magnitude was small (about 3% between highest and lowest quartiles), and no significant associations were observed between dietary PRAL and fracture rates. No differences were observed between animal and non-animal protein.
• No significant associations were observed between fish intake or plasma levels of omega3 fatty acids and bone ultrasound measures or fracture rates.
• Though there were some sex differences in the observed relationship between diet and bone health, these were not significantly different and there were no significant sex interactions in the relationships.
This is probably one of the largest prospective population studies to date with accurate assessments of diet validated with objective biomarkers and substantial number of fracture endpoints. Although, the study did not find strong evidence to support dietary recommendations to improve bone health in men and women, there was no evidence that there was any adverse impact on bone health.
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