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Exploiting Process Factors To Reduce Acrylamide in Cereal Based Foods
Project Code: C03052
Premier analytical services
Hamlet, C ;
Sadd, P; Liang, L; Jayaratne, S; Skingle, M
The results of new research into the formation of acrylamide in low moisture cereal products are presented covering four main work areas: an investigation of UK commercial products; the variability of raw materials used in UK cereal products; the effectiveness of methods to reduce acrylamide levels; and the implications of potential mitigation measures on the generation of other processing contaminants such as 3-monochloropropane-1,2-diol (3-MCPD).
1.1 Key findings
1.1.1 Commercial products investigation
Highest mean levels of acrylamide were found in gingerbreads, ginger biscuits, crispbreads, and wholegrain crackers.
For some products such as ginger biscuits a wide range of acrylamide levels was evident, whilst in other products the distribution was much narrower.
The range of levels found were comparable to those measured in similar products in 2003.
1.1.2 Raw materials investigation
Levels of asparagine varied in tandem with fructose and glucose in wheat and rye flours used in UK biscuits and crispbreads.
Cereal selection based on low fructose and glucose content, and hence low asparagine, could be beneficial in reducing acrylamide in baked cereal products (e.g. crackers) that have no added sugars.
1.1.3 Soft dough biscuits
Any raising agent increased acrylamide, but ammonium based agents had the greatest effect.
More acrylamide was generated in biscuits baked from doughs that had been allowed to age
Best practice should minimise the ageing of doughs.
Calcium chloride was more effective than calcium carbonate at reducing acrylamide formation in biscuits but resulted in an unpalatable product
1.1.4 Fermented crackers
Yeast fermentation was effective in consuming asparagine and hence reducing acrylamide levels.
1.1.5 Other process contaminants
There was no risk of increased contamination by other process contaminants e.g. 3-MCPD resulting from recipe / process changes to minimise acrylamide.
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